Prerequisite — Countersn-bit Johnson Counter A counter is basically used to count the number of clock pulses applied to a flip-flop. It can also be used for Frequency divider, time measurement, frequency measurement, distance measurement and also for generating square waveforms. In this, the flip-flops are asynchronous counters and are supplied with different clock signals, there may be a delay in producing output.

Also, a few numbers of logic gates are needed to design asynchronous counters. So they are elementary in design and also are less expensive. Ripple counter — A n-bit ripple counter can count up to 2 n states.

### Flowchart Maker and Online Diagram Software

It is also known as MOD n counter. It is known as ripple counter because of the way the clock pulse ripples its way through the flip-flops. Some of the features of ripple counter are:. A counter may be an up counter that counts upwards or can be a down counter that counts downwards or can do both i. The sequence of counting usually gets repeated after a limit. When counting up, for n-bit counter the count sequence goes from,…, … etc.

When counting down the count sequence goes in the opposite manner:, …,… etc. In the circuit shown in above figure, Q0 LSB will toggle for every clock pulse because JK flip-flop works in toggle mode when both J and K are applied 1, 1 or high input. The following counter will toggle when the previous one changes from 1 to 0. The 3-bit ripple counter used in the circuit above has eight different states, each one of which represents a count value.

Similarly, a counter having n flip-flops can have a maximum of 2 to the power n states. The number of states that a counter owns is known as its mod modulo number.

Hence a 3-bit counter is a mod-8 counter. A mod-n counter may also be described as a divide-by-n counter. This is because the most significant flip-flop the furthest flip-flop from the original clock pulse produces one pulse for every n pulses at the clock input of the least significant flip-flop the one triggers by the clock pulse.

Thus, the above counter is an example of a divide-by-4 counter.

Timing diagram — Let us assume that the clock is negative edge triggered so above counter will act as an up counter because the clock is negative edge triggered and output is taken from Q. Counters are used very frequently to divide clock frequencies and their uses mainly involve in digital clocks and in multiplexing.

The widely known example of the counter is parallel to serial data conversion logic. Attention reader! If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.

See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks. Please Improve this article if you find anything incorrect by clicking on the "Improve Article" button below. Writing code in comment? Please use ide. Some of the features of ripple counter are: It is an asynchronous counter.Also See: series 74 series Gates Binary numbers Electronic circuits count in binary.

This is the simplest possible counting system because it uses just two digits, 0 and 1, exactly like logic signals where 0 represents false and 1 represents true.

The terms low and high are also used for 0 and 1. Counting onetwothreefourfive in binary: 1, 10, 11, Binary numbers rapidly become very long as the count increases and this makes them difficult for us to read at a glance.

Fortunately it is rarely necessary to read more than 4 binary digits at a time in counting circuits. In a binary number each digit represents a multiple of two 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 etcin the same way that each digit in decimal represents a multiple of ten 1, 10,etc. For example in binary equals in decimal:. Each b inary dig it is called a bitso is an 8-bit number. Computers and PIC microcontrollers work with blocks of 8 bits. Two or more bytes make a wordfor example PICs work with a bit word two bytes which can hold a maximum number of A block of 4 bits is called a nibble half a byte!

Many counting circuits work with blocks of 4 bits because this number of bits is required to count up to 9 in decimal. The maximum number with 3 bits is only 7.

Hexadecimal often just called 'hex' is base 16 counting with 16 digits. Each hexadecimal digit is equivalent to 4 binary digits, making conversion between the two systems relatively easy. You may find hexadecimal used with PICs and computer systems but it is not generally used in simple counting circuits.

Binary Coded Decimal BCD is a special version of 4-bit binary where the count resets to zero after the ninth count It is used by decade counters and is easily converted to display the decimal digits on a 7-segment display. Several decade counters using BCD can be linked together to separately count the decimal ones, tens, hundreds, and so on. This is much easier than attempting to convert large binary numbers such as to display their decimal value.

All counters require a 'square wave' clock signal to make them count. Most switches bounce when the contacts close giving a rapid series of pulses.

### Central Processing Unit

Connecting a switch directly to a clock input will usually give several counts when the switch is operated once! The animated block diagram shows a clock signal driving a 4-bit counter with LEDs connected to show the state of the clock and counter outputs QA-QD Q indicates an output. In fact the frequency of each stage of the counter is half the frequency of the previous stage.

You can see this pattern too in the table above showing the 4-bit numbers. Notice how output QA changes state every time the clock input changes from high to low that is when the clock LED turns offthis is called the falling-edge.

A 4-bit counter and clock input In this example counting advances on the falling-edge of the clock signal. Electronics diagram are normally drawn with inputs on the left and signals flowing to the right. This one is deliberately drawn the other way round so the outputs are placed in the correct binary order. There are two main types of counter: ripple and synchronous. In simple circuits their behaviour appears almost identical, but their internal structure is very different. A ripple counter contains a chain of flip-flops with the output of each one feeding the input of the next.

A flip-flop output changes state every time the input changes from high to low on the falling-edge. This simple arrangement works well, but there is a slight delay as the effect of the clock 'ripples' through the chain of flip-flops. The operation of a flip-flop Notice how the output frequency is half the input frequency. In most circuits the ripple delay is not a problem because it is far too short to be seen on a display.

However, a logic system connected to ripple counter outputs will briefly see false counts which produce 'glitches' in the logic system and may disrupt its operation.Modern CPU's are complex beasts, highly optimised and tricky to understand. This makes it very difficult to see why it was constructed in the way it was. Part of the problem is the requirement for backwards compatibility i. This incremental development can result in a very confusing instruction-set and a 'cluttered' hardware architecture.

Also, when you do start to dig down into the literature a lot of things are not always fully disclosed i. However, at their hearts all processors are simple machines and in some respects have not changed that much since the s i. Therefore, to prove that processors are actually very simple to build and understand i developed a simple 8bit CPU architecture that can be implemented in an FPGA.

## How to Build an 8-Bit Computer

To be honest it wasn't really designed, it evolved, therefore, the hardware could be optimised quite a bit. However, the aim was to break the processor down into its fundamental building blocks i.

Boolean logic gates. Then combining these to form more complex components e. The basic block diagram of this computer is shown in figure 1, a very simple machine, made from registers, multiplexers and an adder. The operation of this machine and its components will be explained from the bottom up, logic gates to "Hello World", implemented in a Spartan 3 FPGA, its hardware defined in schematics.

The source files for each version of this processor can be downloaded links in each section and simulated using the Xilinx ISE However, if you click on an image you will get a high resolution image, but some are quite large, so may take a while to load. PDFs are also available for some images. At its lowest level every operation in the computer is performed by logic gates like those shown in figure 2, for more information on Boolean logic refer to: Link Link.

Using these basic building blocks we can construct the four fundamental components of any computer:. Referring back to figure 1 you can see that this processor has three multiplexers MUX controlling the data and address busses. Notein its simplest form a bus is just a group of wires carrying a binary numbers Link. Multiplexers are switches allowing the processor to select information from multiple sources and route it to a single destination.

To select which data source should be used a multiplexer has one or more control lines as shown in figure 3. This MUX has two data inputs A,Bone output Z and an input SELselecting which one of the two data inputs should be connected to its output, as defined by its truth table shown in the bottom of figure 3.

This multiplexer can select between two bits binary digitshowever, within the processor we need to select between 8 bit byte buses i. To achieved this the multiplexer is replicated eight times i. To save space i have only shown the first three multiplexers, a full circuit diagram is available here: Link. The circuit symbol for this 8bit multiplexer is shown in figure 5, it's interface has three 8 bit busses thick lines and one signal thin lines :.

Notethis approach of using hierarchical schematics is good example of a fundamental design principle in computer science i. Identifying key functionality, separating these out into distinct components, that can then be reused in the construction of other components or systems, simplifying schematic layout, construction and hides unnecessary details.

To state the obvious designing complex computing systems is a complex process, there is a large gap between user requirements and system realisation which is "difficult" impossible to perform in a single step. To simplify this design process we break the system down in to a number of functional blocks e.

We can then incrementally refine these components to a final implementation whilst ignoring irrelevant details. In addition to multiplexers shown in figure 1 the ALU also needs a multiplexer discussed later i. This can be constructed from three byte multiplexers, as shown in figure 6.

The Xilinx schematics and symbols for these multiplexers can be downloaded here: Link.Downloads Logic Diagram Of 2 Bit Comparator diagram of mazda 6 diagram of toyota tacoma fuel system diagram of chevy parking brake diagram of suzuki eiger. Diagram Base Website Full Edition. Diagram Of 2 Diagram Of 2 Starla 5 stars - based on reviews. Logic Diagram Of 2 Bit Comparator -? Thus, it's very hard to figure out which part of the mind that simplifies things. So, what I will reveal to you is a diagram of the human mind and it will help you understand that you are looking at the most significant thing.

But do you know what part of the mind will coordinate everything? The part that you're looking at right now is your brain's left hemisphere. Remember, it's called the left hemisphere since it is about the left side of their brain.

And, it is likely to coordinate everything on all sides of your brain. It extends from the bottom to the surface.

## Step by Step Procedure of PLC Programming in Industries

It's the part that provides you your character, your ability to maneuver, to talk, to use your hands, and other essential things. Now, you might feel this area, this left side of this brain region is the component that coordinates everything.

But, it's not. Would you want to learn how? It has the primary responsibility for your body and your palms. It does all but the rest of the work that you do comes from the left hemisphere. Communicating from the left hemisphere of the brain is how you communicate.

By way of example, if you don't understand anything, even if you do not know your name, if you do not understand what's going on, then you will need the help of this area. If you can't speak, if you can not understand what's going on, then you want this component of the mind to communicate with different people. Everything in your life that you need comes from your brain's left hemisphere.

That is how powerful this component of the brain is. It doesn't matter if you're learning something new or if you're doing something that's wrong.

If you don't understand what's going on, if you can not speak, then your whole mind is not working.Building an 8-bit TTL computer sounds like a daunting and complicated task, or at least it did to me when I started out on my journey to understand the architecture of a basic CPU.

When it comes down to it, a CPU is fairly simple in operation once you learn the fundamentals behind all of its processes.

This project is intended to help anyone interested in building their own computer and gaining the wonderful knowledge that comes along with the process.

Don't be afraid to try, you can only learn. This project will start off by describing the basics of electronics. After that, the fundamentals of binary and boolean logic will be described. This means that the end product of this Instructable will be a computer that you can program with a unique instruction set. This project also leaves many of the design aspects of the computer up to you and serves as a guide for building your own computer.

This is because there are many ways to approach this project. If you already have a sound understanding of boolean logic and the workings of binary feel free to skip to the meat of the project. I hope that you all enjoy and get something out of a build like this, I know that I sure did. For this project you will need: 1. A power supply 2. LED's for output 4. Various logic IC's discussed later 5. Free time 6. A willingness to mess up and learn from mistakes 7.

A lot of patience Optional but very useful : 1. Oscilloscope 2. Digital multimeter 3. This may seem like a very simplistic question that does not need answering when, in fact, it is a question that many people do not know the true answer to. Computers have existed a lot longer than the transistor in mechanical and theoretical form. The actual definition of a computer was thought up by a very intelligent individual by the name of Alan Turing.

He described a machine that was termed the Turing Machine. Every computer that we use today, from the computer or cell phone that you are reading this on to supercomputers all can be classified as a Turing Machine at their most simplistic level.Are you looking to learn PLC programming online?

We offer free resources and training to teach yourself PLC programming. Our online resources are ideal for those looking to teach themselves PLC programming. And for those looking for more structured learning, we offer a curated list of online PLC Training Courses offered by the top PLC programming experts around the world.

Welcome to the second part of my ladder logic tutorial. In part 1 of the ladder logic tutorial, I introduced you to the very basics of ladder logic and to some basic instructions.

In this second part of the tutorial I will teach you how to solve actual problems with ladder logic and how to use it to build PLC programs.

At the same time you will be introduced to several other ladder logic instructions:. A PLC counter is a function block that counts up or down until it reaches a limit. When the limit is reached the output is set. The thing is that counting is in fact widely used in PLC programming. Often you will have the need to counts different things.

An example of this could be to keep track of how many times a process has been completed. Or how many products has been produced. How does it work?

And why is it called Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition? Some of the most essential functions in PLC programming are the timers. Time in PLC programs is used almost everywhere from delaying the start of a motor to prolonging a signal. PLC timers are used exactly for that. It is a standard for published by The International Society of Automation ISA that sets out models and terminology addressing batch control.

The standard was published in an attempt to standardize and thereby making it easier for automation suppliers to integrate, communicate and configure batches. It is adopted by Europe as IEC Today, the standard is used by most manufacturers and automation suppliers that deal with batch control. Especially productions of food and medicine utilizes if not the whole, then at least parts of the standard to keep track of their batch production.Draw the logic diagram of a 2-bit demultiplexer, a circuit whose single input line is steered to one of the four output lines depending on the state of the two control lines.

The desired logic diagram of a 2-bit multiplexer with the control line C0 and C1 and input line I producing outputs O0, O1, 02 and O3 is as given Ask your question! Help us make our solutions better Rate this solution on a scale of below We want to correct this solution. Tell us more Hide this section if you want to rate later. Draw the logic diagram of a 2-bit encoder, a circuit with four input lines, exactly one of which is high at any instant, and two output lines whose 2-bit binary value tells which input A 2 to 4 decoder is a digital device whose input is a 2 bit binary word.

The output has 4 lines, one of which is activated high 1 depending on the input value. Note that the input is one of the four Note that the input Q1: [10 Marks] Design a binary counter which starts at 1 and counts all prime numbers up to 19 and resets back to its initial state.

Use D flip flops to implement your design. Include all state Draw the logic diagram of a 2-bit Questions Courses. Draw the logic diagram of a 2-bit demultiplexer, a circuit whose single input line is steered What does this circuit do? Nov 09 AM. Ashish answered on April 16, Answer: Do you need an answer to a question different from the above?

Help us make our solutions better. We want to correct this solution. Tell us more. Was the final answer of the question wrong? Were the solution steps not detailed enough? Was the language and grammar an issue? We appreciate your Feedback Stay Solved :. Didn't find yours? Ask a new question Get plagiarism-free solution within 48 hours. Review Please. Next Previous. Related Questions. Draw the logic diagram of a 2-bit encoder, a circuit with four input lines, exactly one of which The output has 4 lines, one Posted 3 years ago.

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